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Diabetic Dictionary
glycemic index (gly-SEE-mik)
a ranking of carbohydrate-containing foods, based on the food's effect on blood glucose compared with a standard reference food.
glycogen (GLY-koh-jen)
the form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.
glycosuria (gly-koh-SOOR-ee-ah)
the presence of glucose in the urine.
a unit of weight in the metric system. An ounce equals 28 grams. In some meal plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are given in grams.
HDL cholesterol, stands for high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (kuh-LESS-tuh-rawl LIP-oh-PRO-teen)
a fat found in the blood that takes extra cholesterol from the blood to the liver for removal. Sometimes called "good" cholesterol.
the passing of a trait from parent to child.
honeymoon phase
temporary remission of hyperglycemia that occurs in some people newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, when some insulin secretion resumes for a short time, usually a few months, before stopping again.
a chemical produced in one part of the body and released into the blood to trigger or regulate particular functions of the body. For example, insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas that tells other cells when to use glucose for energy. Synthetic hormones, made for use as medicines, can be the same or different from those made in the body.
human leukocyte antigens (HLA)
proteins located on the surface of the cell that help the immune system identify the cell either as one belonging to the body or as one from outside the body. Some patterns of these proteins may mean increased risk of developing Type 1 diabetes.
hyperglycemia (HY-per-gly-SEE-mee-uh)
excessive blood glucose. Fasting hyperglycemia is blood glucose above a desirable level after a person has fasted for at least 8 hours. Postprandial hyperglycemia is blood glucose above a desirable level 1 to 2 hours after a person has eaten.
hyperinsulinemia (HY-per-IN-suh-lih-NEE-mee-uh)
a condition in which the level of insulin in the blood is higher than normal. Caused by overproduction of insulin by the body. Related to insulin resistance.
hyperlipidemia (HY-per-li-pih-DEE-mee-uh)
higher than normal fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.
hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) HY-per-oz-MOH-lur HY-per-gly-SEE-mik non-kee-TAH-tik)
an emergency condition in which one's blood glucose level is very high and ketones are not present in the blood or urine. If HHNS is not treated, it can lead to coma or death.
hypertension (HY-per-TEN-shun)
a condition present when blood flows through the blood vessels with a force greater than normal. Also called high blood pressure. Hypertension can strain the heart, damage blood vessels, and increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems and death.
hypoglycemia (hy-po-gly-SEE-mee-uh)
a condition that occurs when one's blood glucose is lower than normal, usually less than 70 mg/dL. Signs include hunger, nervousness, shakiness, perspiration, dizziness or light-headedness, sleepiness, and confusion. If left untreated, hypoglycemia may lead to unconsciousness. Hypoglycemia is treated by consuming a carbohydrate-rich food such as a glucose tablet or juice. It may also be treated with an injection of glucagon if the person is unconscious or unable to swallow. Also called an insulin reaction.
hypoglycemia unawareness (un-uh-WARE-ness)
a state in which a person does not feel or recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia. People who have frequent episodes of hypoglycemia may no longer experience the warning signs of it.
hypotension (hy-poh-TEN-shun)
low blood pressure or a sudden drop in blood pressure. Hypotension may occur when a person rises quickly from a sitting or reclining position, causing dizziness or fainting.
IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus)
former term for Type 1 diabetes.
immune system (ih-MYOON)
the body's system for protecting itself from viruses and bacteria or any "foreign" substances.
immunosuppressant (ih-MYOON-oh-suh-PRESS-unt)
a drug that suppresses the natural immune responses. Immunosuppressants are given to transplant patients to prevent organ rejection or to patients with autoimmune diseases.
impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
a condition in which a blood glucose test, taken after an 8- to 12-hour fast, shows a level of glucose higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. IFG, also called pre-diabetes, is a level of 110 mg/dL to 125 mg/dL. Most people with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes.
impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. IGT, also called pre-diabetes, is a level of 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL 2 hours after the start of an oral glucose tolerance test. Most people with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. Other names for IGT that are no longer used are "borderline," "subclinical," "chemical," or "latent" diabetes.
implantable insulin pump (im-PLAN-tuh-bull)
a small pump placed inside the body to deliver insulin in response to remote-control commands from the user.
impotence (IM-po-tents)
the inability to get or maintain an erection for sexual activity. Also called erectile (ee-REK-tile) dysfunction (dis-FUNK-shun).
incidence (IN-sih-dints
a measure of how often a disease occurs; the number of new cases of a disease among a certain group of people for a certain period of time.
incontinence (in-KON-tih-nents)
loss of bladder or bowel control; the accidental loss of urine or feces.
inhaled insulin
an experimental treatment for taking insulin using a portable device that allows a person to breathe in insulin.
injection (in-JEK-shun)
inserting liquid medication or nutrients into the body with a syringe. A person with diabetes may use short needles or pinch the skin and inject at an angle to avoid an intramuscular injection of insulin.
injection site rotation
changing the places on the body where insulin is injected. Rotation prevents the formation of lipodystrophies.
injection sites
places on the body where insulin is usually injected.
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